The region of Podillya is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi region and Vinnytsia region. Northern Transnistria, in Moldova is also a part of Podillya.
Podillya lies south of Volhynia, southwest of the Kiev Region, northeast of the Dniester River, and east of Galicia across the Zbruch River, a tributary of the Dniester.
It has an area of about 40,000 km², extending for 320 km from northwest to southeast on the left bank of the Dniester. In the same direction run two ranges of relatively low hills separated by the Southern Bug, ramifications of the Avratynsk heights.
Two large rivers, with numerous tributaries, drain the region: the Dniester, which forms its boundary with Moldova and is navigable throughout its length, and the Southern Bug, which flows almost parallel to the former in a higher, sometimes swampy, valley, interrupted in several places by rapids. The Dniester forms an important channel for trade in the areas of Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Zhvanets and other Podolian river-ports.
In Podillya, "black earth" (chernozem) soil predominates, making it a very fertile agricultural area. Marshes occur only beside the Bug. A moderate climate predominates, with average temperatures at Kamianets-Podilskyi of 9 °C (-4 °C in January, 20 °C in July).
The chief towns include Kamianets-Podilskyi, the traditional capital, Balta, Bratslav, Haisyn, Letychiv, Lityn, Mohyliv-Podilskyi, Nova Ushytsia, Olhopil, Khmelnytskyi, Vinnytsia, and Yampil.
Podillya is known for its cherries, mulberries, melons, gourds, and cucumbers.